Migrating From Bibtex To Biblatex: Why And How

BibLaTeX is a more modern program compared to BibTeX for managing bibliographic information and citations in LaTeX documents. There are several advantages to switching from the older BibTeX to the newer BibLaTeX standard:

Benefits of BibLaTeX Over BibTeX

Supports Newer Citation Styles

BibLaTeX is under active development and supports newer citation styles that are not available in BibTeX. Some examples include APA 7th edition, Chicago 17th edition author-date, and Vancouver numeric styles. BibTeX is limited to a few legacy styles such as plainnat, abbrvnat, apalike, etc.

More Flexible and Extensible

The codebase for BibLaTeX was written with extensibility in mind. Its data model, inheritance rules, and modular formatting language allow more customization compared to BibTeX. Programmers can easily create new style definitions, entry types, and data fields.

Additional Entry Types

BibLaTeX supports additional reference types beyond what BibTeX offers. Some examples include artwork, patent, website, performance, software, and more. These allow citing non-traditional sources much more easily.

Improved Name Parsing

BibLaTeX has better algorithms for parsing author names into first, last, middle, and suffix components. BibTeX only separates last names from the rest. BibLaTeX ensures more accurate name sorting and disambiguation for citations and bibliographies.

Multi-Language Support

BibLaTeX has localization into languages like German with more planned for the future. BibTeX has no explicit support for languages besides American English. BibLaTeX makes it easier to produce bibliographies that follow foreign-language conventions.

Migrating your Existing .bib Files

When converting existing BibTeX .bib files to be compatible with BibLaTeX, there are several changes needed to ensure minimal disruption:

Converting Entry Types

Some common mappings when converting entry types:

  • @book -> @book
  • @article -> @article
  • @inproceedings -> @inproceedings

Most standard BibTeX types have identical BibLaTeX equivalents. But some types will need more significant changes.

Handling new Required Fields

Some entry types now require additional fields in BibLaTeX that were optional for BibTeX. Some examples:

  • eprint: Preprint archive identifier
  • eid: Article ID in journal
  • issn: Journal ISSN

Any missing required fields should be filled with placeholder text or the entry will not process.

Updating old Fields

Some BibTeX fields got renamed in BibLaTeX:

  • journal -> journaltitle
  • number -> issue

Scripts can help automate these renames, but some manual cleanup may be needed.

Using BibLaTeX

Using BibLaTeX in LaTeX documents requires configuring the package correctly to activate its advanced capabilities:

Loading Packages


This specifies BibLaTeX with Biber backend instead of BibTeX. Needed for all BibLaTeX functionality.

Specifying Bibliographic Database


Process the references.bib BibLaTeX database to populate citations and bibliography.

Creating Citations

Two common citation commands in LaTeX:


BibLaTeX defines citation commands similar to BibTeX. But new citation styles may offer additional commands.

Customizing Styles

The style behavior in BibLaTeX can customize to suit the document needs:

Using Built-in Styles


Over two dozen built-in styles like numeric, alphabetic, authoryear, etc. are available.

Modifying Existing Styles

  • Changing Punctuation
  • Adding/Removing Fields

Tweak the output of existing styles with configuration options.

Creating New Styles from Scratch

For complete control, make new custom styles through BibLaTeX's style language. Allows fine-grained formatting of citations and bibliographies.


Migrating legacy BibTeX-based workflows to the more advanced BibLaTeX citation management system provides significant advantages for LaTeX document creation:

Summary of Benefits

  • More citation styles
  • Additional entry types
  • Improved name handling
  • Foreign language support
  • Enhanced customization

Given these benefits, transitioning to use BibLaTeX for citations and bibliographies is recommended for LaTeX users.

Recommendation to Migrate

With its improvements over 20+ years of development, BibLaTeX represents the future of bibliographic management in LaTeX. Most limitations from BibTeX have been addressed. BibLaTeX is under active maintenance and adds useful new features yearly. The transition does require some manual effort converting old .bib files and documents. But afterwards, BibLaTeX provides a more capable and maintainable solution going forward.

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